Resources such as cues, questions, and advance organizers fall under the categories of the five roles of cognitive tools. Tapping into a student’s prior knowledge is key to building connections to advance to long-term memory. Cues and questions are often needed to help students trigger their prior knowledge. Teachers can help students elaborate on their prior knowledge by actively seeking information through various multimedia resources. According to Using Technology with Classroom Instruction that Work, research using visual aids and multimedia appeals to multiple learning styles. Multimedia can also be used to help to develop a visual model to understand new information.Organizing prior knowledge and new information can be a daunting task. However, using an advance organizer will make it easier for students to visually see, recall, and retain the information. Using graphic organizers helps students with the information presentation, knowledge organization, and knowledge integration.
Other strategies that assist in processing information are summarizing and note taking. Summarizing and note taking are important skills for students in transferring their knowledge to long-term memory. It is crucial that students move from simply copying a teacher’s notes or from a book. They must determine the most important details and learn to put information in their own words. Summarizing and note taking help students to organize information, leading students to process the information.
References:Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2011). Cognitive Learning Theories [DVD]. Bridging Learning Theory Instruction and Technology. Baltimore, MD: Author
Orey, M. (Ed.). (2001). Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Main_Page
Pitler, H., Hubbell, E., Kuhn, M., & Malenoski, K. (2007). Using technology with classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.